Cascading Goals

The process of adopting goals at different levels within and organisation or team to ensure there is alignment between organisations objectives and employees activities and goals.

Case Study

A detailed written description of a real life situation that enables participants of a learning event to make a recommendation based on the facts given. Alternatively allows a training organisation to demonstrate through a real life situation that they are able to successfully develop the knowledge, skills and behaviours of people they train.


What may get in the way of an individuals or an organisations performance these could include lack of skills, knowledge or information, low motivation, working environment and remuneration.


A process where a participant of a training programme completes the training and is assessed and achieves the minimum pass rate. This can sometimes be marked and authenticated by a third party e.g. ILM.

Change Curve

Originally created by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross in 1969 to illustrate how people deal with the news that they have a terminal illness, the theory is easily translated to how to deliver and communicate difficult messages. The model takes you through a number of emotional phases that a person will feel when receiving bad news they are: Immobilisation – instant shock from receiving the news makes you unable to think. Denial is the second stage of shock when you can’t believe this is happening to you. Anger – angry is this really happening to you. Bargaining – is it my fault that this has happened, what did I do to deserve this, is there a way around this? Depression – it all seems really bleak. Testing – you start to think of the new options for a way forward that you haven’t considered before. Starts to shape what the future could look like. Acceptance – you start to see a clearer path that you can accept and over time you accept the change and the new way forward. We can never completely predict or know how individuals will react however when we are moving into change it is beneficial to consider each phase and put into place a variety of support and communication to help them accept and move through each phase, at the same time accepting that each person may move at a different pace.

Change Management

Is an approach by organisations to shift individuals, teams and the organisation from its current state to a desired/planned future state. More often than not it is supported in a number of ways e.g. workshops, training and conferences etc.


The quality or state of being clear in what you are doing. Clarity is a phase within The Maze© (see Maze© The) that relates to the planning of when and where to proceed.


In the business environment can be one to one or one to many; however it is widely recognised as a learning and development experience that happens more often on a one to one basis. The Coach does not have to have experience of the area/issue they are coaching as they use questioning techniques to facilitate the coaching partners own thought process to identify possible solutions and actions rather than taking on a directive approach. It is one of the most effective forms of personal development.

Coaching Contract

An agreement that is reached at the outset of a coaching session to determine the terms of business, this will include the duration of the coaching (the number of months or weeks the coaching will take place over), number of sessions and length of sessions, the levels of commitment from the coach and coaching partner, confirmation of confidentiality boundaries and respective expectations of suitable outcomes from the sessions.


Comes from the Latin verb congnoso (con ‘with’ + gnoso ‘know’) it is the mental processes that include attention, memory understanding language, solving problems and making decisions.

Cognitive Task Analysis

Task Analysis performed on decision-making or problem-solving activities.


People who believe that the learning occurs when a learner is able to add a new concept/idea to their own cognitive structure and that a process of recognising the relationships between what they already know and what they are learning.

Collaborative Learning

A method of learning that takes place when a small group work together to develop their own answer through group interaction and reaching of a consensus, however the answer may not be a prescriptive known answer.

Competence or competency

The ability of an individual to undertake and successfully complete defined tasks, often this is described in the workplace as the behaviours required to, complete a job or task. An example of a management competency would be influencing.

Competency Competencies

A description/specification of the knowledge and skills required to perform successfully a particular job role. They can be based on knowledge, skills, attitude values or personal values. Competencies can be acquired through training, development or experience.

Competency Framework

A clear description of an organisation’s culture, functions and the job roles within it, it sets out the competences required to perform each role effectively. This type of framework is more often than not supported by the knowledge requirements and behavioural indicators also required.

Competency Gap

Is the measured shortfall of the relevant competences that are required by an organisation to achieve one or more of its stated aims and objectives.

Conflict Handling Modes – Thomas Kilmann

To deal with conflict it is important to understand what our choices are in any given conflict situation, according to the works of Thomas Kilmann there are five conflict handling modes: competing, collaborating, compromising, accommodating and avoiding. The Thomas Kilmann Instrument allows us to measure the conflict handling modes we are using too much or too little and as a result adapt our style of handling the conflict dependant on each conflict situation.


The providing of expert knowledge to a third party for a fee. Consulting is most often used when a company needs an outside, expert opinion regarding a business decision.

Core Competency/ies

The key behaviours demonstrated and measured in the workplace enabling the organisation (and individuals within it) to work within them. Competency is also underpinned by skills and knowledge of the individuals within the organisation.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

An initiative entered into voluntarily by organisations to allow them to engage with the communities or environment around them in a positive and constructive way, it goes above and beyond the minimum standards and should be seen as a moral obligation to its employees, wider community and share holders.


To give professional psychological help and advice on how to cope and move forward from an existing situation that is causing the person discomfort, stress and unhappiness.

Covert Behaviour

A mental activity usually referred to as thinking as it is not directly observable, it may however be inferred by observable overt behaviour.

Critical Incident Technique

The foundations for this technique are said to have been laid by Sir Francis Galton in around 1930, this was then later built on by Colonel John C Flanagan. It is a set of procedures used for collecting observations of human behaviour that have a critical significance either positively or negatively to a, defined criteria. This information is then used to resolve problems through validation and evaluation that will help to develop the future principles.

Culture Change

Making a conscious change to the culture of an organisation from what it is currently to something new, it maybe done as a result of a merger or take over or a need to move the business on so as it is equipped to deal with different set of circumstances. It is likely to start, support and maintain this change that an organisation will carry out a launch to the new culture, along with workshops and training to deliver and embed the change.

Customer Management System

Is a digital process mainly used by organisations hugely reliant on their customers, it is one central shared digital system for collecting organised customer information and data that gives the history and buying habits of those customers, this information is then used to help build long lasting, profitable relationships.