Participative Design

A process used where training design is achieved by the participation of other functions and departments to enhance the design and buy-in by key stakeholders.

Passive Learning

Learning where no feedback is given to a user’s response.

Perceptual Modality

The learning style that refers to the primary way our bodies take in and perceive information; visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, and tactile (VAK).


The accomplishment of an objective or task, in accordance with a set standard of completeness and accuracy.

Performance Gap

The demonstrable gap that exists between desired and actual performance.

Performance Improvement

A systematic process of discovering and analysing human performance improvement gaps, planning for future improvements in human performance, designing and developing interventions to close performance gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the financial and non-financial results.

Performance Improvement Plan (PIP)

A plan used to structure performance improvement objectives where you are trying to avoid formal action. It gives the opportunity for the under performer to improve in areas that have been identified as a cause for concern and where there is a required improvement to achieve the desired and acceptable level or performance.

Performance Measures

Actions that can be objectively observed and measured to determine if a person has performed them to the required standard.

Performance Objective

A predetermined criteria used for prescribing the desired level of performance, this is a generic term and may be either a criterion objective or an enabling objective.

Performance/Systems Analysis

The name given to the process of identifying learning needs using the analysis of business needs.

Person Specification

This specification will often sit alongside a Job Specification used for recruitment, it should profile the characteristics of the ideal person for the job.

Personal Development Plan

The output of a Personal Development Review (see Personal Development Review) it is a commitment to a series of development objectives that are driven from a number of sources they are likely to sit under Personal and Business. The Personal objectives will include those that relate to competencies and behaviours and Business ones are likely to relate to Strategic Aims and objectives and the overall Business or department objectives.

Personal Development Review

An annual review meeting to appraise the year’s performance against set criteria e.g. competencies and behaviours, this could involve numerical scoring. The review meeting will be proceeded by the reviewee and the reviewer collecting evidence to demonstrate their opinion on the level of performance or lack of performance in order for them to have a meaningful discussion. The output of the review will be the creation of a Performance Development Plan.


A Pilot will sometimes be run with a sample of the target participants to tryout the training course, programme or workshop, this provides the opportunity to measure its effectiveness, review and change exercises and timings to ensure a fit for purpose roll out to the wider audience.


The syndicated distribution of audio files may also include any media, such as video and written materials. In learning, podcasts are a useful way of distributing formal and informal content.

Practical Exercise

A technique used during a training session that permits participants to acquire and practice the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to successfully perform one or more training objectives.


Repeated and systematic performance of a job or task to gain the required skills to perform proficiently.

Psychological Type Theory – Carl Jung

Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and the founder of analytical psychology, he developed the theory of Psychological Types, which explained behaviours based on mental processes, and the differences between these from individual to individual. Jung’s work was built upon by Katherine Myers and Isabella Briggs in the Myers Briggs Personality Type Indicator®. Jung considered individuation, the psychological process of integrating the opposites, including the conscious with the unconscious whilst still maintaining their relative autonomy that is central to human development, the four dimensions are ‘extroversion and introversion’, ‘sensing and intuition’, thinking and feeling’ and ‘judging and perception’ on each dimension people tend to have preferences towards one end of the scale or the other, but we can all use all of the functions when necessary.

Psychometric Testing

The word ‘Psychometric’ originates from the Greek words for mental and measurement and a Psychometric Testing is used to measure a persons mental ability and personality. It is commonly used as a part of the recruitment process to establish greater insight into the applicant many companies also find that this is another part of offering consistency in the recruitment process and at times they can be looking for a specific outcome that they feel is a more fitting profile for the role applied for. It is not usually used in isolation.