Means ‘improvement’, or ‘change for the better’ in Japanese and refers to philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, game development, and business management (see Six Sigma). Embedding Kaizen into the workplace defines that the organisation and all of its people will work towards continuously improving its processes to reduce waste and cost (efficiency and productivity). The process of Kaizen is embedded into Toyota and it has for many years now been a role model example of the results it can enable an organisation to achieve.

Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s)

The measurement indicators that are in place in an organisation to measure individual and or group performance.

Key Responsibility Areas (KRA’s)

These are areas of performance that an individual or group is responsible for achieving, they are normally defined in a Job Description or through organisational Values and Behaviours.

Kirkpatrick Four Levels of Evaluation

In 1959 Donald Kilpatrick created a model to evaluate learning, it is based on 4 levels of attainment:

  • Level 1 – is the reaction of student (what they thought and felt about training).
  • Level 2 – is the learning (the resulting increase in knowledge or capability).
  • Level 3 – is the behaviour (the extent of behaviour and capability improvement this also covers implementation/application in the workplace).
  • Level 4 – is the results (the effects on organisation or environment resulting from the participants performance).


What is known specifically by an individual to effectively accomplish their job or tasks, this is often the technical element of a delivery in a role.